The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Lord Krishna. Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with shreemad bhagwat geeta in gujarati pdf differing views on the essentials.
Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi referred to the Gita as his “spiritual dictionary”. The discourse of Krishna and Arjuna, in Kurukshetra has been captured in this photo. Bhagavad Gita, being a part of the Mahabharata’s Bhishma Parva, is also ascribed to him.
Theories on the date of composition of the Gita vary considerably. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range. Professor Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the likely date of composition. It is generally agreed that, “Unlike the Vedas, which have to be preserved letter-perfect, the Gita was a popular work whose reciters would inevitably conform to changes in language and style”, so the earliest “surviving” components of this dynamic text are believed to be no older than the earliest “external” references we have to the Mahabharata epic, which may include an allusion in Panini’s fourth century BCE grammar. There is no reference to the Bhagavad Gita in Buddhist literature, the Tripitaka. The Buddha refers to 3 Vedas rather than 4 Vedas.
Due to its presence in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavad Gita is classified as a Smriti text or “that which is remembered”. The Bhagavad Gita is the sealing achievement of this Hindu Synthesis, incorporating various religious traditions. The Bhagavadgita combines many different elements from Samkhya and Vedanta philosophy. In matters of religion, its important contribution was the new emphasis placed on devotion, which has since remained a central path in Hinduism. The Bhagavadgita may be treated as a great synthesis of the ideas of the impersonal spiritual monism with personalistic monotheism, of the yoga of action with the yoga of transcendence of action, and these again with yogas of devotion and knowledge. The influence of the Bhagavad Gita was such, that its synthesis was adapted to and incorporated into specific Indian traditions.
The Bhagavad Gita is part of the Prasthanatrayi, which also includes the Upanishads and Brahma sutras. Although early Vedanta gives an interpretation of the sruti texts of the Upanishads, and its main commentary the Brahman Sutras, the popularity of the Bhagavad Gita was such that it could not be neglected. Some branches of Hinduism give it the status of an Upanishad, and consider it to be a Śruti or “revealed text”. According to Pandit, who gives a modern-orthodox interpretation of Hinduism, “since the Bhagavad Gita represents a summary of the Upanishadic teachings, it is sometimes called ‘the Upanishad of the Upanishads’. The Bhagavad Gita is a Bhagavata explanation of the Purusha Sukta and the Purushamedha Srauta yajna described in the Satapatha Brahmana. An old torn paper with a painting depicting the Mahabharata war, with some verses recorded in Sanskrit. A manuscript illustration of the battle of Kurukshetra, fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, recorded in the Mahabharata.
In the epic Mahabharata, after Sanjaya—counsellor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra—returns from the battlefield to announce the death of Bhishma, he begins recounting the details of the Mahabharata war. Bhagavad Gita forms the content of this recollection. Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata and consists of 700 verses. The Sanskrit editions of the Gita name each chapter as a particular form of yoga.
However, these chapter titles do not appear in the Sanskrit text of the Mahabharata. The Gita Dhyanam is not a part of the main Bhagavad Gita, but it is commonly published with the Gītā as a prefix. After asking Krishna for help, Arjuna is instructed into various subjects such as, Karma yoga, Gyaana yoga, Sankhya yoga, Buddhi yoga and the immortal nature of the soul. Krishna explains how Karma yoga, i. Krishna reveals that he has lived through many births, always teaching yoga for the protection of the pious and the destruction of the impious and stresses the importance of accepting a guru.
He further elucidates the difficulties of the mind and the techniques by which mastery of the mind might be gained. Krishna describes the absolute reality and its illusory energy Maya. This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds, and light and dark paths that a soul takes after death are described. Krishna explains how His eternal energy pervades, creates, preserves, and destroys the entire universe. Krishna is described as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the Supreme Being, quoting great sages who have also done so.
In this chapter Krishna glorifies the path of devotion to God. He also explains different forms of spiritual disciplines. The difference between transient perishable physical body and the immutable eternal soul is described. The difference between individual consciousness and universal consciousness is also made clear. Their causes, characteristics, and influence on a living entity are also described. Krishna identifies the transcendental characteristics of God such as, omnipotence, omniscience, and omnipresence.